List of oral questions for 6 yeard students

CONCLUDINGLESSON

QUESTIONS FOR MODUL CONTROL

«GENERAL QUESTIONS OF HYGIENE», «MUNICIPAL HYGIENE»,  «HYGIENE OF NUTRITION»

  1. Hygieneasamedicalscience, itsobjectives, tasks, contents, the profile hygienic disciplines. Sanitation.Environment, and external environment.Methodsofhygienicresearchandtheirclassification. Specificmethodsofhygiene.
  2. Methods of studying of the environmental factors. Methods of studying of the environmental effect on human body and health. Principles and forms of hygienic regulation.
  3. Solarradiation, itsbasic constituent elements and their characteristics.Spectral distribution of the ultraviolet diapason of the solar radiation at the edge of the atmosphere and earth surface (regionsА, В, С). The ozone layer and its hygienic significance.Typesandmechanisms of the UVRbiogeniceffect general-stimulatory, chromogenic, vitaminDforming, bactericidal. Distinctivefeatures of the biogenic effect for each region of the UVR spectral distribution.
  4. Methods and devices for the measurement of the UVR intensityphysical, photochemical, biological, mathematical (calculation). Ultraviolet intensity measurement units,used with these methods and their interrelation. Definitionofphysiologicandpreventiveultravioletradiationdoses. Their quantification using the different methods of the intensity determination, microer, microbact.
  5. Health disturbances and diseases caused by the UVR insufficiency. Mainsymptomsofthe “solar insufficiency” and indications for the UVR preventive radiation. Application of the natural and artificial UVR sources for the different diseases primary and secondary prevention and treatment.
  6. Physicalnatureandhygienicsignificanceofnaturallighting.Mainlight engineeringvalues (light intensity, luminous/light flux, spectrum, lighting, brightness etc.), their measurement units. Hygienic requirements for the indoor natural lighting. Externalandinternalfactors, thatinfluencethe indoor natural lighting level. Indicesandstandardsof natural lighting for different premises.
  7. Assessmentoftheindoornaturallightingusinggeometricmethodsduring preventive and regular sanitary inspection (lighting coefficient, angle of incidence and aperture, premises depth coefficient determination).
  8. Assessmentofthelighting in premises using light engineering methods. Measuring oftheilluminancewith theluxmeter. Theactualdaylightfactordeterminationduringpreventive (Daniluk’s’s methods) and regular sanitary inspection.
  9. Hygienicsignificance of artificiallighting for people’s life, rest, productive activity. Theartificiallightinginfluenceontheworkingcapacity, centralnervoussystemcondition, eyesightfunction (visualacuity, contrastsensation, visualperceptionspeed, clear vision durability, colour recognition, adaptation, accommodation, critical winking frequency). Comparativehygieniccharacteristicofthedifferentartificiallightingsources(advantages and disadvantages of incandescent and luminescentlamps).
  10. Main lighting indices and factors, which influence the lighting level. Types of lighting fittings.The artificial lighting calculation for premises using “Watt” method, itsmainstages.Hygienicsignificanceandmethodofdeterminationofsurface lightingevenness and brightness.
  11. Definition of microclimateand its forming factors.The air and radiant temperature, their hygienic significance, methods and devices for measuring (thermometers, thermographs).
  12. Theairhumidityanditsindices: absolute, maximum, relative, physiological relative humidity, humidity deficit,physiological humidity deficit, dew point and their hygienic significance.Devicesfortheairhumiditydetermination(staticAugustpsychrometer, aspiration Assmannpsychrometer, hygrometer, hygrograph,principles of their operation).
  13. Physical basics of air movement. The solarradiationandEarthsurfacetypesignificanceforwind formation. Hygienicsignificanceofthe atmospheric air movement for the climate and weather formation and purity of atmosphere. Usageofdominantwind directions in the preventive sanitary inspection during the construction of the settlements, industrial enterprises and recreation zones. “Wind rose”. Significance of indoor air movement for microclimate formation. The air movement measurement methods and devices.
  14. Thermalequilibrium and organism heat exchange with environment. Factors forming heat production and loss. The human heat state subjective and objective indices in different microclimate.
  15. Definitionofhumanphysicalandbiochemicalthermoregulation. Ways and means of the heat loss. Factors which influence the heat loss by radiation, conduction, evaporation. Mechanisms of heat loss through respiration.
  16. Methodsforstudying of the influence ofcertainmicroclimatefactors on the human organism. Complex methods for studying of the influence of the microclimate parameters on the organism (catathermometry, frigometry, equivalent-effective and resultant temperatures), their determination and hygienic assessment.
  17. Coldmicroclimateandits influence on human organism. Physiological reactions and diseases caused by cold microclimate.Hot microclimate and its influence on human organism. Conditions caused the overheating. Physiologicalandpathological symptoms of acute and chronic overheating. Solar and heat strokes. Overheating prevention.
  18. Calculation and complex hygienic assessment of total human heat loss through respiration and skin by radiation, convection, evaporation in present microclimate conditions.Hygienic standards of microclimate parameters for different premises, their scientific substantiation.
  19. Climate, itsdefinition. Climate forming factors. Indices characterizing the climate in the area.Climateclassification (geographical, building,medicaletc.) andtheclimaticzonehygienic characteristic. The climatic zoning of the territory of Ukraine. Climate peculiarities in different natural and geographical regions.Physiologicalandpathologicalreactionofhealthyandillpersononclimate influence. Acclimatization.The climatic conditions influence on settlement planning, home hygiene, water supply, nutrition, personal hygiene.Application of climatic factors for heath improvement and disease prevention.Classification of therapeutic resort factors and resorts.Methodsofdifferentdiseases sanatorium-and-spa treatment.
  20. Weather, itsdefinition. Weather forming and characterizing factors.Patterns of atmospheric circulation.The different types of weather formation. Weathermedicalclassification, thesignificance of underlying indices. The medical weather forecasting. The daily weather elements variety and their influence on the cardiovascular diseases chronicity. Main thermobaric formations: cyclone, anticyclone, atmospheric fronts.Temperature inversion.Weatherinfluenceonhealth. Heliometeotropicorganism reactions, definition, mechanism of their influence. Principles of heliometeotropic reactions prevention. Primary and secondary prevention
  1. Chemicalcompositionofatmosphericairanditsinfluenceonhumanbody. Hygienic significance of nitrogen, oxygen,carbon dioxide, air humidity.Sourcesofthe atmospheric air pollution with chemical substances (natural, transport, industrial) andtheir hygienic significance. Smog.Methodsandmeans for the atmospheric air protection from man-causedpollutions.
  2. Sources of the air pollution in residential, public,industrial premises and their hygienic characteristics.Themicrobiologicalindoorairpollution(bacteria,viruses, fungi) and its part in transmission of respiratory infections and allergies.
  3. Sanitaryinspectionoftheindoorairpurityinpopulatedpremises: determination of theairoxidationand СО2concentration as sanitary indices of the air pollution with products of human vital activity (sweat, sebaceoushumour, necroticepidermis, dust, microorganisms).MaximumallowableconcentrationsofСО2in premises as a sanitary index of the air pollution with the products of human vital activity and as a pollutant in industrial premises.
  4. Naturalindoor ventilation,its hygienic significance and means for improvement.Artificialindoor(enforced) ventilation (inflow, outflow, inflow-outflow), its technical hardware. The air conditioning, principles of air-conditioner operation.
  1. Physiological, hygienic and national economical importance of water.General specification of water quality of natural sources of water supply (organoleptic characteristics, indices of chemical composition, radiation and epidemiological safety, water physiological value).
  1. Classification of natural water sources, conditions of water forming in them and their comparative hygienic characteristic.Sources, reasons and mechanisms of pollution of surface and ground waters. Use of water reservoirs for treatment of domestic and industrial sewage.
  1. Self-purification of water in open-air water reservoirs, its nature and hygienic importance, self-purification factors. Sewage treatment.
  1. Scientific bases of selection of water supply sources. Hygienic regulations and State standards for water quality in water reservoirs, sphere of their circulation, regulation principles.
  1. Water quality organoleptic characteristics, methods of their determination and units of measurement.
  1. Chemical characteristics that specify compound of natural water, methods of their determination and measurement units.
  1. Bacteriological characteristics of water quality (direct – pathogenic organisms and sanitary-indicative – microbial number, coli titer, coli index), methods of their determination and hygienic regulation.
  1. Hygienic importance of separate elements of water objects sanitary examination (sanitary-topographic, sanitary-technical, sanitary-epidemiologic). 
  1. Rules, methods and devices for taking water samples for analysis from open reservoirs, wells, ground water intake structures and at centralized water-supply systems. Covering letter, its content, rules of processing.
  1. Methods of determination of the water supply sources (wells, intake structures, rivers) discharge (output).
  1. Infectious diseases, pathogens of which are transferred through water (waterborne infectious diseases). Characteristics of water epidemics, their prevention.Geo- and biohelminthiases, protozoa and other pathogens that transmit infection through water of open-air reservoirs, their prophylactic
  1. Macroelements of water and their health effect. Hygienic importance of water hardness. Nitrate inducedmethemoglobinemia
  1. Problem of microelementoses of water origin (fluorine, iodine, selenium, molybdenum etc.), types of pathology they cause, their prophylaxis.Endemic fluorosis, endemic caries, endemic goitre. Contribution of Ukrainian hygienists to scientific substantiation of their prophylaxis.Water fluorination and defluorination as caries and fluorosis prophylactic. Dependence of water fluorination from locality climate.
  1. General hygienic specification of drinking water quality, its factors - organoleptic, chemical composition indices, their hygienic characteristics.
  1. Drinking water State standard. Drinking water quality hygienic specification in case of decentralized water supply.   omparative hygienic characteristic of centralized and decentralized water-supply systems.Water-pipe elements at diversion flow from artesian wells and open water reservoirs. Areas of sanitary control.
  1. Conventional methods of water purification in case of centralized water-supply system (coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, filtration), substances and utilities that are used for this purpose.Methods of water disinfection, their classification and hygienic characteristic.Water chlorination, its methods and reagents that are used for this purpose. Disadvantages of chlorination.Ozone treatment, ultraviolet disinfection of water, their comparative hygienic characteristic.
  1. Special methods of water quality improvement (desalination, defluorination, deodorization etc.), their substance, hygienic characteristics.
  1. Methods of sanitary inspection of centralized water supply systems (preventive, regular). Types of laboratory analysis of water – bacteriological, sanitary-chemical (short, complete, special).Sanitary inspection of local water supply systems. Equipment and maintenance of shaft wells, water source intake structures (catchments). Sanitation of shaft wells.
  1. Soil as a source of infectious diseases: tetanus, gas-gangrenes, geohelminthoses etc.Economic, industrial, transport and other sources of soil pollution, their classification, hygienic characteristic.
  1. Factors and mechanisms that participate in soil self-purification.
  1. Use of soil for economic and industrial waste disposal.
  1. Hygienic characteristic of methods of collection (door-to-door-based, neighborhood-based), disposal, destruction of solid waste of residential, industrial, building origin (improved dumps, grounds, compost fields, utilization and biothermal facilities).Pick-up system of waste collection, disposal and treatment (cesspool fields, sewage irrigation fields).
  2. Rules, methods and techniques of soil sampling, analysis of physical and mechanical, sanitary-chemical, bacteriological, helminthological factors. Drawing up of covering papers.
  1. Soil sanitary state indices, their scientific substantiation (texture, physicochemical indices, microbial number, coli titer, anaerobic titer etc.).Method of determination of physicochemical indices of soil.
  2. Technique of detection of geohelminthes in soil.Elementary scheme for determination of bacteriological criteria of soil sanitary state and pollution.
  1. Physiologicalsignificance, basic functions of nutrition. Principles and conditions of the rational nutrition.
  1. Physiological and hygienic substantiationofrationalnutritionforpeople of different ages and professions.
  1. Сlinical and special nutrition. The physiological norms of nutrition for main groups of population (age, professional and others).
  1. Рhysiologicalandhygienicsignificanceofproteins, fats, carbohydratesfornutrition, their requirements for organism, main sources.Problemsofprotein starvation, .
  1. Physiologicalandhygienicsignificance, functionofvitamins, mineralsubstances, microelements, flavoring agents in organism, their requirements for human organism and main sources. Problems of hypo-, avitaminosis, hypervitaminosis. Biogeochemical endemia.
  1. Alimentary and alimentary caused diseases, their classification, etiology, main principles of prevention.
  1. Food poisonings, their classification, origin, epidemiological particularities.Bacterial food poisonings (toxicoinfections, bacterial toxicoses, mycotoxicoses), their origin, basics of prevention.Non-bacterial food poisonings, their origin, prevention.
  1. Methodsandcriteriaofassessment ofthenutritional statusof individuals orcollectives with similar working conditions and nutrition as their nutrition validity signs.
  1. Energy expenditureoftheorganism, itscomponents as the base of the ration’s caloric content. Methods of determination of the energy expenditure. The physical activity coefficient, its dependence from the hardness and intensity of work, social, geographical and climate living conditions.
  2. Calculation of the organism requirement in nutrients.
  1. Caloric and biological value of dairy, meat, fish products, animal proteins and fats.
  1. Caloric and biological valueof bread, grain products, cereals.
  1. Caloricandbiologicalvalueofvegetables, fruits, berries, vegetable fats, mono-, di-, polysaccharides.
  1. Methodsoffoodproducts andreadymealssanitaryinspection
  1. Methods of diagnosis and prevention of the alimentary caused diseases with metabolic and deficient genesis.
  1. Methodsoffoodpoisoninginvestigation,directive, methodical and legislative documents used during this procedure.